Western History

#24: The National Monarchies.

  1. Government of kings seemed more efficient and stable than the anarchy of feudalism
  2. Dante 1265 – 1321
  3. 15th and 16th centuries
    1. Rise in nationalism and monarchies
    2. Feudalism was crumbling.
    3. Papacy loses prestige.
    4. The rising middle class.
    5. Serfs being freed from land.
  4. France
    1. Joan of Arc 1412 – 1431
      1. French patriotism after 100 year war
      2. Drives out English
    2. Luis 11 and 12 expand France
  5. Spain
    1. Ferndinand and Isabel
    2. Expansion to new world
  6. England =  Henry 7th
  7. Austrian = Maximilliam unites with Netherlands
  8. Italy is not nationalized due to rivalries and the popes
  9. Ambassadors are needed for diplomacy
    1. International Law
    2. Begin to study Roman Law
      1. Goes against feudal or common law
      2. Supports power of kings
  10. New Weapons – Guns and Gunpowder
    1. Used at end of 100 year war
    2. Modern infantry
    3. Creates a strong interventionist state
      1. Spain = Used in expansion South America

# 25: The Renaissance and the Age of Discovery

  1. 14th through 16th Century
  2. More wealth creating consumption of arts
  3. Inventions
    1. Eye Glasses, wheel barrow, button
    2. Gutenberg Press
    3. Magnetic compass
  4. Revival of Greek belief of man as measure of all things
    1. Humanists – to discover the good life in Greek and Roman literature
    2. free-will, duty to society, classical curriculum
    3. Professional Scholar
      1. Erasmus 1466 – 1536
      2. Machiavelli 1469 – 1527
        1. Separated religion and politics to break from medieval tradition
    4. Artists of humanity
      1. Changes from religious subjects to a focus no humans
      2. Michelangelo
      3. Raphael
    5. Martin Luther
  5. Books
    1. Change from Latin to local language
  6. Age of geographic discovery along with mental discovery
    1. The rise of the Turks upsets the balance of the Mediterranean
      1. Exploration to new world was to outflank Turks
    2. Crusaders revival to spread Christianity
    3. Work between Monarchs, merchants, and explorers

# 26. The Renaissance and the New World

  1. Explorers
    1. Fame drives explorers driven by new books and press
    2. Beginning of scientific method
      1. Experience of explorers help to prove or disprove theories
      2. Geography and astronomy
      3. Pendulum clock, microscope, and telescope helped verify theory
    3. Still medieval thought
      1. Many grotesque reports of new world inhabitants
      2. New world beliefs collide with Christianity
        1. One belief was that natives were more free
        2. Other beliefs dehumanize of natives
        3. Creation of new myths and exploitation
    4. Montaigne
      1. Compares natives with Europeans
      2. Objectivity
      3. Beginning of relativism
    5. Davinci
      1. Puts experience and observation above other authorities

#27. The Reformation

  1. Powerful Monarchies and Nationalism
    1. Secure obedience, use of force, maintain law and order
    2. Pursue new economies to receive taxes
    3. Creating strong symbolism to push patriotism
    4. Revival of Roman Law for nationalism
    5. Monarchs align with religious upheavals and traditions to hold power
  2. Shakespeare
    1. The ideal or crooked prince
  3. Modern relation between central power and the individual begin to develop
    1. Rise of state employees to tax and administer
    2. Codes between sovereigns and states
    3. Breakdown of church law
  4. Alliance between capital and the state rise
    1. Charles 5th 1519
      1. Holy Roman Emperor
      2. Uses backing of banks to finance rise to power
    2. Phillip II – Charles son – King of Spain – 1556
      1. Ruled Largest Empire
  5. Social Disatisfaction was created by unrest of capitalism
    1. Martin Luther – attacks indulgences
  6. Artists
    1. A human christ

Program 28. The Rise of the Middle Class

The Protestant Reformation arises as many Europeans, particularly in cities, look for new forms of piety and worship.

Students should understand the following issues:

  • The means by which rulers centralized power in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
  • Financial and economic bases of the new states.
  • The changing economy of the sixteenth century.
  • Ways in which Protestant reformers reacted to the Catholic church’s popular, institutional piety.
  • Ways in which Protestantism was suited to the urban bourgeoisie.
  • Ways in which painters portrayed the relationship between everyday life and the sacred.
  • Countermeasures taken by the Catholic church during the Counter-reformation.

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